Conservation Influencers

International Primate Protection League

South Carolina, USA

The International Primate Protection League (IPPL) was founded in 1973 by Dr. Shirley McGreal, a British-born animal rights campaigner who was then based in Thailand. Its global mission is to counter primate abuse and international traffickers. It also operates a sanctuary for gibbons in the USA. From 1979 onward McGeal, as the boss of IPPL, became a regular attendee at CITES’ CoPs. 

The International Primate Protection League first came to world attention in 1978, when it launched a global media-based protest against Dr. Christiaan Barnard, after a chimpanzee died during experimental heart transplant surgery that he supervised. Yet it was the results of such experiments that had earlier pioneered the first successful human-to-human open-heart surgery that was performed by Barnard in 1967. 

Since 1978, IPPL has been involved in numerous lawsuits, sometimes in cooperation with PETA, in which the claims made by the two parties have been thrown out of court because they were proven to be groundless. For example, in the case of International Primate Protection League v. Institute for Behavioral Research, a court found that IPPL lacked the standing to challenge a medical researcher’s compliance with the Animal Welfare Act. 

Moreover, at CITES’ CoPs IPPL has falsely accused China and other South East Asian countries of ‘laundering’ wild long-tailed macaques as captive bred in order to obtain export licenses. And IPPL also used its concern for primates to intrude, especially in Madagascar, upon wider issues related to the conservation of three tree groups, ebonies, palissanders and rosewoods, by linking them to the conservation of Silky Sifaka (See here). 


Kerri Young is Office Administrator and Trish McCoy Sanctuary Manager.


Pam Mendosa is Chairwoman of the independent Board of Directors. There is also an advisory committee.


According to its form 990 for 2018, its gross receipts amounted to USD2,619,704 and its expenditure to USD1,096,700.

About the directory

Conservation Influencers is a searchable directory of the animal activist, environmental and ecological lobby. It examines the history, mission, methodology and reputation of NGOs to assess their impact on the global conservation cause.


Wildlife Conservation Society

In 1906, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) put an African man on display in Bronx Zoo’s Monkey House. In 1918, one of WCS’s founding fathers, Madison Grant, published Passing of the Great Race, which Adolf Hitler referred to as his ‘Bible’. Another leading creator and early leader of WCS, Henry Fairfield Osborn Sr, was also a founder of the American Eugenics Society. His son headed WCS from 1940 to 1968, overseeing a series of major initiatives in Africa. There, WCS became one of the architects of the prohibition movement, which put wildlife for consumptive use and vast regions of land out of bounds to humanity. In 2020, WCS distanced itself in public from the racist views of Grant and Henry Fairfield Osborn Sr. But it has yet to issue a critical account of the legacy of Fairfield Osborn Jr, even though he led WCS into the modern era while sharing similar politically-inspired ecological goals to his father and Grant. WCS devotes considerable financial resources to influencing outcomes at CITES. WCS’s CEO reportedly earns USD$1,320,978.