Conservation Influencers

Friends of the Earth

Washington, DC and The Netherlands

Founded in 1969, Friends of the Earth (FoE) popularised the motto ‘think globally, act locally’. Its two US-based founders were the oil-billionaire Robert Orville Anderson and David Brower, a then recently expelled member and former executive director of the Sierra Club. In 1971, they also formed Friends of the Earth International (FoEI).

Today, besides its strongholds in the USA, UK and mainland Europe, FoEI represents an influential network of 73 FoE groups scattered around the world, including Nigeria, Mozambique, Indonesia, Brazil and the Caribbean. Its largely decentralized network embraces in excess of 5,000 NGOs and employs thousands of staff. FoE’s core mission is to bring about a ‘peaceful’ and sustainable world based on ‘societies living in harmony with nature’. 

However in 2019, when Extinction Rebellion used shock-tactics to close down Parliament Square, Oxford Circus, Waterloo Bridge and Marble Arch, and vandalized the London headquarters of Shell, FoE fully supported the use of violence: see Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace back Extinction Rebellion protests.

FoE groups are best known for their firm opposition to nuclear power (now more nuanced), fossil fuels, genetically modified crops and food, eating meat, widespread use of nanotechnology, and every aspect of whaling. Across the world FoE campaigns against airports, especially new runways and high-speed railways, road building, the use of plastic, climate breakdown and habitat destruction. 

According to its 2019 annual report, FoE believes that the ‘financialisation of nature’ and ‘market-led mechanisms’ are detrimental to their causes (page 19). FoE pointedly refuses to accept that these two concepts could ever be efficacious. This means that it does not support the sustainable use of natural resources, which depends upon making the conservation of wildlife financially viable. Hence, FoE wants to exclude any mention of their positive potential in the development the Convention on Biological Diversity’s post 2020 framework.


Friends of the Earth International Secretariat is based in The Netherlands.


According to its annual report, in 2019 FoEI had revenues of euro 2,842,249 and total expenses of euro 2,995,008. Additionally, national FoE groups each have their own, often substantial, budgets, revenue and expenses.


Karin Nansen, Uruguay, is Friends of the Earth International Chair. Every FoE national group has its own governance and management, too. 

About the directory

Conservation Influencers is a searchable directory of the animal activist, environmental and ecological lobby. It examines the history, mission, methodology and reputation of NGOs to assess their impact on the global conservation cause.


Wildlife Conservation Society

In 1906, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) put an African man on display in Bronx Zoo’s Monkey House. In 1918, one of WCS’s founding fathers, Madison Grant, published Passing of the Great Race, which Adolf Hitler referred to as his ‘Bible’. Another leading creator and early leader of WCS, Henry Fairfield Osborn Sr, was also a founder of the American Eugenics Society. His son headed WCS from 1940 to 1968, overseeing a series of major initiatives in Africa. There, WCS became one of the architects of the prohibition movement, which put wildlife for consumptive use and vast regions of land out of bounds to humanity. In 2020, WCS distanced itself in public from the racist views of Grant and Henry Fairfield Osborn Sr. But it has yet to issue a critical account of the legacy of Fairfield Osborn Jr, even though he led WCS into the modern era while sharing similar politically-inspired ecological goals to his father and Grant. WCS devotes considerable financial resources to influencing outcomes at CITES. WCS’s CEO reportedly earns USD$1,320,978.